Resources: 15-minute FOTO

15-minute FOTO – aka the And when X... game¹ – is our Creative Commons-licensed and Clean Language-inspired coaching game that’s not only for coaches – everyone gets a turn! Consistently, it’s a highlight of our workshops: it’s fun and surprisingly practical, generating not just insights but a good quantity of relevant outputs. Above all, it’s the main tool by which we generate outcomes – and outcomes are the main currency in which we deal².

FOTO stands for “From Obstacles to Outcomes”, and the game’s objective is to generate as any outcomes as you can in the allotted time – 15 minutes for a table group working together in the Lite edition, or 3-4 minutes per rotation (plus some changeover time) through the Classic edition’s roles of client, coach, scribe, and (depending on numbers) observer.

As well as an objective, 15-minute FOTO has rules, two of them – it is a game after all! They make it a generative process:

  1. You can only ask questions from the card
  2. For the X’s in many of the questions, you must use previous answers or fragments thereof, verbatim

There are no wrong answers, but the intent of the questioning should be to elicit outcomes in a spirit of curiosity, not to fish for solutions (suggesting solutions isn’t possible within the rules). In view of the game’s objective, questioners – ’coaches‘ – are advised not to waste time digging into obstacles; however some quick clarification may be helpful.

Read more: chapters 1 & 2 of Agendashift: Outcome-oriented change and continuous transformation (2nd edition 2021). See also our cheat sheet.

¹ See the blog post Aka the ‘And when X…’ game
² See the blog series [The language of outcomes]

The 15-minute FOTO cue card

The 15-minute FOTO cue card

If playing in person (as opposed to online), we recommend that the cue cards are printed on A5-sized card, one per person. It is difficult to hold face-to-face conversation when looking at screen! Accordingly, the facilitation deck includes some slides to be shown or hidden for online and offline use.

If you’d like access to Dropbox with all the original files for the cue cards, the facilitator’s deck, and the latest translations (versions of the cue card are available in German, Italian, and Swedish), just ask via the button below.


To see this game used in conjunction with the Agendashift True North, watch Exercises in Lean-Agile Transformation with Mike Burrows (, 2017):

Facilitation tips

  • Watch the video, familiarise yourself with the deck (even if you don’t intend to use it) and study these:
  • Consider attending a [Learning the Language of Outcomes] training workshop or one of our longer strategy workshops
  • Table groups of 3-5 people. 4 is ideal
  • When introducing the game, take the time to demonstrate how the Clean Questions work:
    • Taking the coach role, practice with a sample obstacle or two
    • Be ready with some examples of your own – see for example the blog post My favourite Clean Language question
    • Emphasise the three questions in bold – it’s possible to play the game with only these
  • Set the expectation that they should be able to generate a good number of outcomes (a dozen or more) in the limited time available. Warn that if ever a minute passes without an obstacle being captured, something is wrong – either:
    • Digging into obstacles, forgetting to ask “What would you like to have happen?”
    • Being too strict in what they accept, missing intermediate outcomes in the search for the ultimate outcome perhaps
    • Discussing the process instead of trying it
  • Give the reassurance that if they find the conversation repeating itself, congratulations – they have found a virtuous circle! Retrace to an earlier part of the conversation and take it in a different direction
  • If you’re playing the Classic edition:
    • Make sure i) that each table group knows who is in each role, and ii) that the first client has chosen an obstacle
    • Every few minutes the roles rotate: “New client, new obstacle! And rotate the other roles”
    • Allow some time for changeover but maintain some pace and energy
  • If you decide to extend the exercise after the time is up, that’s ok
  • You can get your list of obstacles (a required input to the game) from a variety of sources, for example:
    • Your retrospectives, and more specifically by reflection on customer dissatisfactions and team frustrations (see chapter 3 of the book)
    • The results of an exercise to reflect on a generative image, of which our True North statement is a good example
    • After prioritising the results of an assessment (chapter 2)
  • Don’t skimp on printing; reading the questions off a screen doesn’t work nearly so well, and it’s good to give everyone something they can take away
  • Debrief afterwards:
    • The experience, by role
    • The results, organised perhaps into a Plan on a Page, a template for which is included in the 15-minute FOTO materials

Finally, do encourage participants interested in Clean Language to check out our recommended reading page as highlighed at the end of the deck.


Depending on the nature of your question, try one of these channels in the Agendashift Slack:

  • #cleanlanguage
  • #workshops
  • #coaching
  • #agendashift-book

Alternatively, get in touch via our contact page.

Agendashift™ is copyright © 2015-2021 Positive Incline Ltd. All rights reserved. The page 15-minute FOTO by Mike Burrows of Positive Incline Ltd is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit

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Materials for 15-minute FOTO


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About us

Agendashift™ is brought to you by Positive Incline Ltd, UK-based specialists in Lean, Agile, strategy, and change. Founder Mike Burrows came to prominence in the Lean-Agile community as the orginator of Kanban’s values model, out of which came his first book, Kanban from the Inside (2014). His more recent books Agendashift (2nd edition 2021) and Right to Left (2019, audiobook 2020) bring a resolutely needs-based and outcome-oriented perspective to change, transformation, and the Lean-Agile landscape as a whole, contributing meanwhile a number of popular tools, games, and other resources. He works as a consultant, facilitator, and trainer, and as a keynote speaker at events public and private around the world.

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